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Year : 2023  |  Volume : 21  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 62-67

Coexistence of obstructive sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease: A narrative review

1 Department of Emergency Medicine, Pertamina Central Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia
2 Department of Emergency Medicine, Urip Sumoharjo Hospital, Bandar Lampung, Indonesia
3 Department of Cardiology and Vascular Medicine, Pertamina Central Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Sidhi Laksono Purwowiyoto
Faculty of Medicine of Universitas Muhammadiyah Prof Dr Hamka, Jl. Raden Patah No. 01, Rt. 002/ RW. 006, Parung Serab, Kec. Ciledug, Kota Tangerang, Banten 13460
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/cmi.cmi_101_22

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There is substantial evidence that patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) have a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the exact mechanism that links OSA with CVD is still insufficiently understood and often underdiagnosed and undertreated. This review aims to summarize the pathomechanisms coexistence of OSA and CVD and a diagnostic evaluation of the treatment options for OSA. The Pubmed was searched using the keywords “OSA;” and “CVD.” Related papers published from 2013 to February 2022 were chosen. OSA has been associated with intermittent hypoxemia, significant intrathoracic pressure changes, and arousal from sleep, all of which have been linked to adverse health effects, particularly in the case of CVD. The need for the early detection of CVD patients and OSA screening is critical. Screening techniques include identifying specific OSA symptoms through medical history, using screening questionnaires or devices, followed by diagnostic testing thorough sleep evaluation that differs depending on the underlying cardiovascular condition. The need to improve the early diagnosis and treatment of OSA, a highly prospective modifiable CVD risk factor, is crucial given the growing body of research on the relationship between OSA and CVD as well as the effectiveness of OSA treatment.

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