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MEDICAL EDUCATION
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 20  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 48-51

Designing a comprehensive lesson plan: A crucial aspect in improving the teaching-learning process


Department of Community Medicine and Family Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India

Date of Submission11-Oct-2021
Date of Decision29-Oct-2021
Date of Acceptance16-Nov-2021
Date of Web Publication04-Feb-2022

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Manish Taywade
Department of Community Medicine and Family Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Room Number: 322, 3rd Floor, Academic Building, Bhubaneswar - 751 019, Odisha
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/cmi.cmi_83_21

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  Abstract 


Lesson plan is required for all medical educators as it would help in completing their teaching-learning activity within specific periods for completion of all learning goals. There are six steps and eight components in the formulation of a lesson plan. The lesson plan should include the instructional design or learning objectives. The learning activity should start with a proper set induction, i.e., induce the interest regarding the topic in the students. There should be a brief travel to the past lessons, and it should end with feedback from the students and one assessment for assessing the learning understandings of the students.

Keywords: Learning, lecture, lesson plan, medical educator, medical student, teaching


How to cite this article:
Pal D, Taywade M, Alekhya G. Designing a comprehensive lesson plan: A crucial aspect in improving the teaching-learning process. Curr Med Issues 2022;20:48-51

How to cite this URL:
Pal D, Taywade M, Alekhya G. Designing a comprehensive lesson plan: A crucial aspect in improving the teaching-learning process. Curr Med Issues [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Jul 1];20:48-51. Available from: https://www.cmijournal.org/text.asp?2022/20/1/48/337311




  Introduction Top


A lesson plan can be considered as a written guide that is utilized to achieve learning outcomes. It is an integral part of the planned teaching and learning activity.[1] Lesson planning is an essential tool to direct and achieve the goal of teaching. Therefore, a medical teacher makes himself or herself more organized to attain the highest level of learning outcomes. As per “Oxford Languages,” a lesson plan means “a teacher's plan for teaching an individual lesson.”[2] Before the beginning of any activity, the plan should be kept in mind as it would help in the proper and smooth functioning of the activity. Similarly, for teaching purposes, before starting any class, the teacher should keep the plan of teaching ready in his/her mind or a physical medium (i.e., in the diary, electronic media), preferably in a physical medium.

Instructional design for a lesson plan is the key element to the acquisition of knowledge and skills more effectively and efficiently.[3],[4]

Why lesson plan is important?

A lesson plan helps both teachers and students in multiple ways.[4]

  1. It will help the teachers in meeting the educational goals, especially when obvious educational objectives are not clear
  2. It helps in providing a historical record of educational activity for validation of inclusion topics in question. A lesson plan can also help in formulating a new class on the same topic
  3. It helps in communication among teachers of any topic so that in the absence of a predesignated teacher, any other teacher can take the class.


Requirements for formulating a lesson plan

For making a lesson plan following things should be kept in mind.[5],[6]

Students

It is essential to know the baseline knowledge of students, what they want to learn, and the extent of their actual interest in learning.

Strategies

For the teacher, there should be specific strategies predetermined for teaching his or her students.

Grouping

Teachers should know the group behavior of the students so the group behavior can be utilized properly for the facilitation of learning.

Timing

It should be predetermined what would be the limit in time within which the teaching would be finished. Furthermore, it will be important to choose the perfect timing within 24 h of the day for the teaching of the particular subject.

Materials

All the materials and methods that are going to be used should be prepared and rehearsed well before the teaching activity.

Success

The success of learning must be evaluated through an assessment-based approach from students so that it can help in the improvement of the teaching capability of the teacher.

Sequence

There should be a specific sequence of every event of any teaching activity so that there will be a smooth transition of knowledge with further improvement.

Rationale

Before starting making a lesson plan, it should be kept in mind that why is that topic or subject is important, and this importance should be told to students.

The main requirements of the lesson plan can be presented as a triangle [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Requirements for making one effective lesson plan.

Click here to view


Components of the lesson plan

There are eight main components in the lesson plan.[7]

  1. The predefined objective of learning activity fulfilling SMART (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant, and Time-bound) criteria
  2. One anticipatory set or set induction for attracting the minds of students towards learning activity
  3. Direct instruction for delivery of the content
  4. Predetermined strategies for students for practicing what they would learn
  5. Properly closure the class with one brief discussion about the topic in small groups
  6. Independent practice of students at home in the form of homework for practicing their learning
  7. Proper materials and methods for content delivery
  8. Formative or summative assessment for checking to if learning objectives are met or not.



  How to Prepare a Lesson Plan? Top


For developing any effective lesson plan, the following six steps should be followed carefully[5],[8]

  1. Set Induction: The set induction is an essential element of a lesson plan. The gaining of attention of students is one of the most important steps in the educational session. The attention of the students is needed to capture with a stimulus, and the best way is to present a real-life scenario
  2. Formulating specific learning objectives: Specific learning objectives will help in deciding at the end of class what the student would be able to learn or perform. This should be in concordance with the competency to be acquired. The learning outcomes will help the students motivate them, essentially, if they are eager to complete the lesson. For that purpose, one teacher must know about the topic of the lesson, what the teacher wants to impart in the minds of the student during the class and what the teacher expects the student to take home in their mind from the class after understanding. These learning objectives should also be prioritized. It is the pillar of any lesson plan. The domains of learning can be divided into psychomotor, cognitive, and affective domains.[9],[10]


  3. For any topic, the special learning objectives can be made by

    1. “Do” - The action verb
    2. “What” - The thing to be done
    3. “How” - The adverb for your action.


    Example: For the topic of hypertension, the specific learning objective can be: Measure (do) blood pressure of patients (what) following guidelines (how). The specific learning objectives should follow SMART criteria, i.e., Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant, and Time-bound.[10]

  4. Building an introduction: The introduction of the topic should be attractive to the students so that they can get interested in the topic. The introduction part should be interactive, so students feel that learning is not unidirectional. For introducing any subject, a teacher can incorporate any personal experience with it to make the topic more relevant
  5. Plan to check if the students understand or not: Assessment or Evaluation of students' understanding of a given topic is of utmost importance. This has to be planned to ensure that the learning outcomes are met after the lesson. The teacher should plan the questions in the form of multiple-choice questions, oral questions, and quizzes or activity demonstrations regarding the understanding of the topic. There are various platforms, Kahoot, Socrative, etc., that can be utilized for assessment
  6. Summary: There should be a summary of the whole class at the end constituting the key points of the topic, which will emphasize depending on their importance. This take-home message should be brief and specific so that it can create an impact in the memory lane of students
  7. Timeline: There should be a one-time constraint framework for all activities or specific learning objectives during class as the attention span is not unlimited, which in most cases is approximately 15 min.[11] All the teaching activities should be divided equitably within the provided total period. The starting and closing of any teaching session are the important part.



  Conceptual Framework of the Lesson Plan Top


[Table 1] is depicting one example of formulating a framework for lesson plan for topic of modern contraceptives[12],[13],[14],[15]
Table 1: Lesson plan for modern contraceptives (practical session)

Click here to view



  Conclusion Top


Student-centered learning and behavior are positively influenced by a lesson plan. The medical educator plays an immense role in enhancing the understanding of a particular topic.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Batmanabane G. Linking lesson plan to teaching learning principles. Ann SBV 2013;2:1-2.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
LESSON PLAN | Definition of LESSON PLAN by Oxford Dictionary on Lexico.com also Meaning of LESSON PLAN. Oxford. Available from: https://www.lexico.com/definition/lesson_plan. [Last accessed on 2021 Jul 09].  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Gagne, R.M., Wager, W.W., Golas, K.C., Keller, J.M. and Russell, J.D. (2005), Principles of instructional design, 5th edition. Perf. Improv., 44: 44-46. https://doi.org/10.1002/pfi.4140440211.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Vaccari A, Farias GF, Porto DS. Implementation of a lesson plan model in the nursing laboratory: Strengthening learning. Rev Gaucha Enferm 2020;41:e20190174.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Saunders RB. Constructing a lesson plan. J Nurses Staff Dev 2003;19:70-8.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Milkova S. Strategies for effective lesson planning. Center for Research on learning and Teaching. 2012;1(1):1-29.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Fink LD. Integrated Course Design. IDEA PAPER [Internet]. 2003 [cited 2021 Sep 20];1–7. Available from: https://www.ideaedu.org/idea_papers/integrated-course-design/.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Yonkaitis CF. Lesson plan basics: Teaching in the classroom with confidence. NASN Sch Nurse 2020;35:136-9.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Singh T, Gupta P, Singh D. Principles of Medical Education. 4th ed. Delhi: Jaypee; 2013. p. 27-38.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Adams NE. Bloom's taxonomy of cognitive learning objectives. J Med Libr Assoc 2015;103:152-3.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Chatterjee D, Corral J. How to write well-defined learning objectives. J Educ Perioper Med 2017;19:E610.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Bradbury NA. Attention span during lectures: 8 seconds, 10 minutes, or more? Adv Physiol Educ 2016;40:509-13.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Samuel S. How to design a comprehensive lesson plan. MedEdPublish 2014;3:1-8.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Miner A, Mallow J, Theeke L, Barnes E. Using Gagne's 9 events of instruction to enhance student performance and course evaluations in undergraduate nursing course. Nurse Educ 2015;40:152-4.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Tambi R, Bayoumi R, Lansberg P, Banerjee Y. Blending Gagne's instructional model with Peyton's approach to design an introductory bioinformatics lesson plan for medical students: Proof-of-concept study. JMIR Med Educ 2018;4:e11122.  Back to cited text no. 15
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1]


This article has been cited by
1 Simplification of Lesson Plan: Elementary School Teacher Perspective
Vicky Dwi Wicaksono
Pedagogia : Jurnal Pendidikan. 2022; 11(2): 77
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