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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 19  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 248-252

Tuberculosis treatment outcomes and its associated factors in a tertiary health center in Southwestern Nigeria: A 5-year retrospective review

1 Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Bowen University, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria
2 Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Health Sciences, Bowen University, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria
3 Department of Paediatrics, College of Health Sciences, Bowen University, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Abiona Oluwadamilola Odeyemi
Department of Pediatrics, College of Health Sciences, Bowen University, Ogbomoso, Oyo State
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/cmi.cmi_51_21

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Background: Monitoring and evaluation of tuberculosis (TB) treatment outcome is an essential component of the evaluation of a country's TB control program. Nigeria's current TB treatment success rate of 86% is below the World Health Organization target of 90% by 2025. This study aims to evaluate TB treatment outcomes in a tertiary health center in southwestern Nigeria over a 5-year period and to document the factors associated with poor TB treatment outcomes. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of all TB patients seen at the TB clinic of the hospital from January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2019. Data were extracted from the TB clinic register. Data extracted included sociodemographic factors, HIV status, treatment category, rifampicin resistance, extrapulmonary TB, and treatment outcome. Treatment outcome was categorized as successfully treated or poor treatment outcome (death, treatment failure, and lost to follow-up). Results: Five hundred and nine TB cases were analyzed with a mean (standard deviation) age of 40.2 (17.7) years. Treatment outcome was as follows: successfully treated – 426 (83.7%), died – 62 (12.2%), treatment failure – 14 (2.8%), and lost to follow-up – 7 (1.4%). Poor treatment outcome was associated with older age (P = 0.003), HIV-positive status (P = 0.044), and smear-negative TB (P = 0.047). Conclusion: The treatment success rate in our center is high but can be improved. More efforts should be put in place to ensure improved outcomes, particularly among the elderly and HIV-positive patients.

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